These Deferred Annuity Mistakes Can Be Taxing
The tax treatment of nonqualified deferred annuities (annuities that are not part of a tax-qualified plan such as an IRA or 401(k)) appears to be fairly clear-cut:
- A distribution that represents a return of your investment in the contract is not taxed
- Earnings aren't taxed until they're withdrawn
- Earnings are taxed as ordinary income and not capital gains, and
- A distribution of earnings taken before age 59½ is subject to a 10% tax penalty unless an exception applies
Simple, right? Yes--except for those particular circumstances that trigger unexpected tax consequences.
Ownership by a "non-natural entity"
"Non-natural entity" is tax speak meaning the annuity owner is not a human being, but is an entity (e.g., trust, partnership, corporation). This creates a situation where the annuity is not treated as a tax-deferred annuity, so any earnings will be taxed to the annuity owner/entity as ordinary income during the current year--even if the earnings haven't been distributed.
There are some exceptions to this rule. It doesn't apply to immediate annuities or those considered qualified funding assets (e.g., annuities held for periodic payments due to personal injury settlements). Also, the annuity may not lose its tax-deferred status if the non-natural entity/owner is acting as the agent for a natural person. For example, ownership of the annuity by the estate of a deceased annuity owner, or the trustee of an IRA or qualified plan, will not, in and of itself, remove its tax-deferred status.
Certain revocable (grantor) trusts may also be the annuity owner without negating the annuity's tax-deferred status, as long as all of the trust beneficiaries are natural persons. However, if an irrevocable (non-grantor) trust, such as a credit shelter trust, is the annuity owner, distributions of earnings from the annuity may be subject to an additional 10% tax penalty. That's because exceptions to this penalty that are available to a person/annuity owner don't apply to a non-natural entity. For example, a non-natural entity can't claim to be over age 59½, nor can it be disabled from work.
The situations described here relate to deferred annuities. Different tax rules may apply to annuities in the payment stage (annuitization).
Gifting an annuity contract
If you make a gift of an annuity you own, special income tax rules apply. If you owned the annuity for some time before making the gift, you are subject to a tax on the difference between the value of the annuity (its cash surrender value) and the amount you have invested in the contract (your premiums). You would have to claim the income in the tax year you make the gift. This rule applies to gifts of annuities to charities and charitable remainder trusts as well. A gift of an annuity contract between spouses generally does not trigger this tax, however.
A trust as your annuity beneficiary
Revocable living trusts are a common estate planning tool. Often, an annuity owner/trustor will name the trust as beneficiary of an annuity. However, if you're survived by a spouse, naming the trust as the annuity beneficiary may remove some settlement options your spouse would otherwise have.
Generally, a surviving spouse named as beneficiary of a deferred annuity has four options available: (1) take the full death benefit in a lump sum (the earnings will be treated as taxable income at the time the benefit is paid); (2) take the annuity proceeds over a period of five years; (3) elect to receive the annuity payments over a period of time not to exceed his or her lifetime (with the last two options, each payment is part nontaxable return of investment and part taxable earnings); or (4) the surviving spouse may also have the unique option of becoming the new owner of the inherited annuity, in which case the annuity can continue in deferral (the spouse doesn't have to take any payments).
However, by naming the trust as beneficiary instead of your spouse, you'd be eliminating the last two options for your spouse--even if your spouse is the beneficiary of the trust. With the trust as beneficiary, the annuity proceeds would have to be paid in a lump sum or over five years following your death. If your annuity has significant earnings, those earnings would be taxed upon distribution, even if your spouse neither needs nor wants the proceeds.
Using an annuity as collateral for a loan
Using your deferred annuity as collateral for a loan may result in the unwanted realization of taxable income to you. For instance, say the basis (premiums paid) in your annuity is $100,000 and it's now worth $150,000. If you use this annuity as collateral for a loan, the collateral assignment is treated like a distribution and all of the gain (i.e., $50,000) will be taxable to you as ordinary income.
The income tax rules for deferred annuities can be tricky, so before making any ownership or beneficiary designation changes, consult your financial or tax professional.