How to Raise a Saver
As parents, we naturally want what's best for our kids. We want them to be polite, respectful, healthy, curious, and smart. And we hope that someday, they will grow into successful adults with independent, fulfilling lives. How best to accomplish this? Well, along with teaching the ABCs, 123s, and right from wrong, teaching your child the basics of financial literacy can help you raise a saver and lay the foundation for your child's bright financial future.
The early years, 3 to 7
Children this age may think that money magically appears from special machines whenever Mom or Dad pushes a few buttons, but there is one money concept they can understand. They know people need money to buy things--chances are they've tagged along with you to the grocery store a few times and watched you fill up your cart. Young children often model the behavior of their parents, so on these shopping trips, when you think your child is receptive, you might say things like "I can't buy this right now, I have to save more money and buy it next time" or "That's great these apples are a really good price today--I can buy more." These types of comments sink in and hopefully will get your child thinking about money and spending.
Once children can identify coins and dollar bills, give them a piggy bank or clear plastic jar to keep any money they earn or receive as gifts. Tell them they can buy something they want once they save a certain amount (make sure the item/price is appropriate and within short-term financial reach). Taping a picture of the item on the bank can provide a visual goal. Of course, children need a way to earn some money. Consider giving your child a weekly allowance and/or payment for small jobs around the house. Some parents tie an allowance to chores; others expect chores as part of everyday family life, but pay extra for "super" chores. The overall goal is to get your child excited about seeing the coins and dollar bills pile up.
The middle years, 8 to 12
These years are the sweet spot to lay a solid financial foundation. Children this age are more financially and materially aware--they have a general idea of what things cost (at least the things they want), they see (and covet) the possessions their friends have, they're bombarded by advertising, they get asked what they'd like for their birthday, and they often have a say in the new clothes and school supplies they get every year. And they aren't shy about pointing out the other items they want--electronics, sports equipment, room decor. It's enough to make any parent shudder.
The first thing to do? Explain the difference between "needs" and "wants." Continue to give your child an allowance, and encourage a 50-25-25 rule (or some variation) that earmarks 50% for immediate spending needs, 25% for the purchase of big-ticket items, and 25% for long-term savings. Consider matching a portion of that last 25% so your child is more motivated to save. Open a bank savings account for your child's long-term savings, and explain how interest and compounding works.
Help your child set financial goals, both short-term (a skateboard or sweatshirt) and long-term (a laptop). When it comes to spending, explain--and model--the concepts of delayed gratification, prioritizing purchases, and making tradeoffs. Help your child learn to get the most value for his or her money by selecting quality merchandise, comparison shopping, waiting for sales, and discouraging impulse buying. Let your child see that you, too, can't buy everything you want all the time.
Introduce the concept of budgeting by explaining how your family's budget works. Without going into detailed numbers, explain how income you receive from your job must be used to pay for needs like food, housing, utilities, and clothing, and how any money left over is set aside for emergency savings, long-term savings, and for "wants" like trips to the movies, restaurants, and new toys and gadgets.
The teen years
Children this age often seem to be ever-growing financial sinkholes--$10 here, $20 there, a laptop, sports equipment, an instrument, school trips, gas for the car, not to mention looming college expenses. Build on the saving, goal-setting, and budgeting lessons from earlier years. Be more specific about what things cost in your family's budget, and explain that in addition to paying day-to-day expenses and saving for college, you're saving for your own retirement.
When your child is old enough, encourage him or her to get a job to help pay for some typical high-school expenses and to start building a nest egg. Teach your child how to use an ATM/debit card, balance a checkbook, and wisely manage credit--skills they'll need in college. Finally, you can introduce your child to more advanced financial concepts, such as stocks, bonds, IRAs, and diversifying investments, by looking at teen-oriented investing books and financial websites.