I'm retiring to a state with no income tax. Can my former state tax my retirement benefits?
The short answer is "no."
In the past, several states enacted "source tax" laws that attempted to tax retirement benefits if they were earned in that state, regardless of where a taxpayer resided when the benefits were ultimately paid. For example, if you earned a $50,000 annual pension while working in California, and then retired to Florida, California would attempt to tax those benefits, even though you were no longer a California resident.
But, in 1996, a federal law was enacted (P.L. 104-95) that prohibited states from taxing certain retirement benefits paid to nonresidents. As a result, if your retirement benefits are covered by the law (most are, see below), only the state in which you reside (or are domiciled) can tax those benefits.
Whether you're a resident of, or domiciled in, a state is determined by the laws of that particular state. In general, your residence is the place you actually live. Your domicile is your permanent legal residence; even if you don't currently live there, you have an intent to return and remain there.
The law applies to all qualified plans (this includes 401(k)s, profit-sharing plans, and defined benefit plans), IRAs, SEP-IRAs, Internal Revenue Section 403(a) annuities, Section 403(b) plans, Section 457(b) plans, and governmental plans.
The law provides only limited protection for nonqualified deferred compensation plan benefits. Benefits paid from nonqualified plans that are designed solely to pay benefits in excess of certain Internal Revenue Code limits (for example, Section 415 excess benefit plans) are covered by the law. Also covered are nonqualified plan (for example, top-hat plan) benefits that are paid over the employee's lifetime, or over a period of at least 10 years.
Examples of benefits that are not covered by the law include stock options, stock appreciation rights (SARs), and restricted stock.