Evaluating risk in your portfolio
If you're like most people, you probably evaluate your portfolio in terms of the return it earns. However, as we were all reminded in 2008, returns aren't the only factor you should consider when determining whether your portfolio is allocated appropriately. Also important is the level of risk you take in pursuing those returns.
There are a number of ways to estimate the level of risk in a portfolio. The term "risk" is often used interchangeably with "volatility" (the tendency of a portfolio's value to rise or fall sharply, especially within a relatively short period of time). However, for most people, a portfolio is simply a means to an end--paying for retirement or a child's college tuition, for example. In that context, "risk" also means the risk of not meeting your financial needs.
One of the most common measures of volatility is standard deviation, which gauges the degree of an investment's up-and-down moves. It shows how much the investment's returns have deviated from time to time from its own average. The higher the standard deviation of an investment or portfolio, the bumpier the road to those returns has been.
Another way to assess a portfolio's volatility is to determine its beta. This statistic compares a portfolio's ups and downs to those of a benchmark index, such as the S&P 500, and indicates how sensitive the portfolio might be to overall market movements. An investment or portfolio with a beta of 1 would have exactly as much market risk as its benchmark.
The higher the beta, the more volatile the portfolio. A beta of 1.05 means the portfolio involves 5% more market risk than the benchmark to which it's compared. If the benchmark rises 10%, a portfolio with a beta of 1.05 should theoretically rise 10.5%; a fall of 10% in the benchmark should mean a corresponding 10.5% decline in the portfolio.
A 0.95 beta means a portfolio has 5% less market risk than that index; in theory, the portfolio would rise and fall 5% less than the benchmark. (However, remember that investments also have unique risks that are not related to market behavior. Those risks can create volatility patterns that are different from the underlying benchmark.)
The risk of not achieving your goals
Another way to evaluate risk is to estimate the chances of your portfolio achieving a desired financial goal. In this case, "risk" means not volatility but the odds that your portfolio will succeed in meeting a specific financial liability. A technique known as Monte Carlo simulation uses computer modeling based on multiple scenarios for how various types of investments might perform based on their past returns. Though past performance is no guarantee of future results, such a projection can estimate how close your plan might come to meeting a future target amount.
Let's look at a hypothetical example. Let's say Bob wants to retire in 15 years. A Monte Carlo simulation might suggest that, given his current level of saving and his portfolio's asset allocation, Bob has a 90% chance of achieving his retirement target. If he chose to save more, he might increase his odds of success to 95%. Or Bob might decide that he's comfortable with having an 85% chance of success in reaching his target amount if that also means his portfolio might be less volatile. (However, be aware that though a projection might show a high probability that you'll reach your financial goals, it can't guarantee that outcome.)
Are you getting paid enough to take risk?
Another approach to thinking about portfolio risk involves the reward side of the risk-reward tradeoff. You can compare a portfolio's return to that of a relatively risk-free investment, such as the inflation-adjusted return on a short-term (3 months or less) U.S. Treasury bill. Modern portfolio theory is based on the assumption that you should receive greater compensation for taking more risk (though there's no guarantee it will work out that way, of course). A stock should offer a potentially higher return than a Treasury bond; the difference between the two returns is the equity's risk premium. A small-cap stock that's relatively new should offer a higher risk premium than a well established, dividend-paying stock. While understanding risk premium doesn't necessarily minimize risk, it can help you evaluate whether the return you're getting is worth the risk you're taking.
Whatever your approach to portfolio risk, understanding the nature and level of the risks you face can be critical in sticking to a long-term investing strategy.