The New Face of Socially Responsible Investing
Feeling strongly about the societal benefit or harm your money might be supporting doesn't mean you have to forgo pursuing a return on your investments. Socially responsible investing allows you to further both your own economic interests and a greater good.
The concept of putting your money where your mouth is first gained widespread attention during the 1970s, when such highly charged political issues as the Vietnam War and apartheid in South Africa led some investors to try to make sure their money didn't support policies that were counter to their beliefs. Since then, a wide variety of investment products, such as socially conscious mutual funds, have been developed to help people invest in ways consistent with a personal philosophy. However, individuals aren't the only ones to adopt responsible investing principles; many colleges and universities, government pension and retirement funds, and religious groups do so as well.
There are many approaches to what may also be known as mission investing, double- or triple-bottom-line investing, ethical investing, socially conscious investing, green investing, sustainable investing, or impact investing.
Screening potential investments
This is perhaps the best known aspect of socially responsible investing: evaluating investments based not only on their finances but on their social, environmental, and even corporate governance practices. The process may be negative, eliminating companies whose products or actions are deemed contrary to the public good. Examples of companies that are frequently excluded from socially responsible funds are those involved with alcohol, tobacco, gambling, defense, and those that contribute to environmental pollution or that have significant interests in countries considered to have repressive or racist governments.
However, as socially responsible investing has evolved, the screening process has become increasingly positive, using screens to identify companies whose practices actively further a particular social good, such as protecting the environment. For example, green technology that can help address environmental problems has attracted the interest of many investors who see not only a social good but an opportunity for profit.
Both individual and institutional shareholders have become increasingly willing to pressure corporations to adopt socially responsible practices. In many cases, having a good social record can enhance business, making a company more attractive to investors. Shareholder advocacy can involve filing shareholder resolutions on such topics as corporate governance, climate change, political contributions, environmental impact, and labor practices. Such activism got a boost from the SEC when it adopted the so-called "say on pay" rule as part of the Dodd-Frank financial reforms. As of April 2011, companies over a certain size must allow shareholders a vote on executive pay at least once every three years. Though the vote is nonbinding, it could give institutional investors a stronger hand in advocating for other interests.
Still another approach involves directing investment capital to communities and projects that may have difficulty getting traditional financing. Investors provide money that is then used to make or guarantee loans to organizations that help traditionally underserved populations with challenges such as gaining access to affordable housing, finding jobs, and receiving health care.
Though past performance is no guarantee of future results, you should make sure your expectations (both financial and social) are realistic and in line with what you hope to achieve.
A recent development focuses not only on investment returns and social benefit, but on measuring and managing performance in both of those arenas. So-called "impact investing" aims not only to minimize negative impact and enhance social good, but to do so in a way that maximizes efficient use of the resources involved, using business-world methods such as benchmarking to compare returns and gauge how effectively an investment fulfills its goals. In fact, some have made a case for considering impact investing an emerging alternative asset class, since such investments may not be highly correlated with traditional assets such as stocks or bonds.
Know your goals
When investing for the greater good, make sure your expectations are clear and realistic. "The public good" may be defined differently by every investor. Also, many socially responsible funds achieve solid financial returns; others may not.
Note: Before investing in a mutual fund, carefully consider its investment objectives, risks, fees, and expenses, which can be found in the prospectus available from the fund; read it carefully before investing.