Deciphering Health Savings Vehicles
Health savings accounts (HSAs), Archer medical savings accounts (MSAs), health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs), and flexible spending arrangements (FSAs) are all personal health accounts that may help you control your health-care costs. But trying to figure out what's what can be confusing. Here's a brief description of each type of account, including some of their major features and benefits.
As of January 1, 2008, the MSA program expired and no new MSAs can be established, although if you already participate in an MSA, you can continue to receive contributions. HSAs have generally taken the place of MSAs because of their greater flexibility and options. In fact, in most instances you can roll over an existing MSA into an HSA. MSAs and HSAs are set up in a trust account with a financial entity. Contributions made through your employer are pretax dollars (or you can contribute to the account directly and deduct the contribution), no tax is due on funds in the account, or on any earnings until withdrawn, and if funds are used for qualified medical expenses, the withdrawals are not taxed. However, account withdrawals that aren't used for qualified medical expenses are subject to a tax penalty of 20%, in addition to regular income tax. Your account is portable, meaning if you change employers or leave the workforce, you can keep the account. To be eligible, you must be insured by a high deductible health plan (HDHP) that you maintain (if self-employed) or that's provided through your employer.
However, there are also differences between MSAs and HSAs. Generally, anyone with an HDHP can participate in an HSA. But to qualify for an MSA, you must have been either an employee of a company that employs 50 or fewer people, or be self-employed (or the spouse of such an employee or self-employed person). With an HSA, contributions can be made by you, your employer, or anyone else on your behalf within the same plan year. But MSA contributions can only be made by either your employer or yourself, but not both, in the same plan year. Contribution amounts also differ. In 2016, maximum HSA contributions are limited to $6,550 for single HDHP coverage and $13,100 for family HDHP coverage. MSA contributions can be up to 75% (65% if you participate in a self-only plan) of the annual deductible of your HDHP, but no more than your annual earnings from employment.
Since January 1, 2011, for HSA, MSA, FSA, and HRA programs, a drug or medicine is considered a qualified medical expense only if it is obtained with a prescription, or is insulin.
If you don't participate in an HDHP, you still can set money aside for uninsured medical expenses through an employer-established FSA. Unlike an HSA, you must be an employee of the employer providing the FSA in order to participate (self-employed persons are not eligible and certain limitations may apply if you are a highly compensated participant or key employee). Pretax contributions can be made by either you, your employer, or both of you (except employer contributions used to pay long-term care premiums must be included in income). You determine how much money you want deposited each year up to the plan's maximum dollar amount or percentage of compensation; funds in the account are not subject to tax; and distributions are tax free if used to pay for qualified, unreimbursed medical expenses you've incurred (no advance payments for anticipated expenses). Unlike HSAs, if you leave your employer, you can't keep the money in the account or take it with you to another employer (it's not portable). Also, what you don't spend on medical expenses by the end of the plan year is forfeited and not available the following year (i.e., you must use it or lose it).
Effective January 1, 2013, contributions to a flexible spending account will be limited to $2,550 per year, increased annually by cost-of-living adjustments.
Like FSAs, HRAs are only available to employees, not to self-employed individuals. And HRAs must be funded solely by an employer; you can't contribute directly to the account. The terms of the HRA are generally determined by the employer. For example, your employer's plan may or may not require you to have health insurance in order to participate. The plan sets the maximum amount of contributions, and determines whether a credit balance in the account can be rolled over from year to year, and if so, how much of the account can be rolled over. But contributions and reimbursements for qualified medical expenses are tax free. Reimbursements can be made to current and former employees, including spouses and dependents of employees and deceased employees. However, if the plan allows for any distribution to you or anyone else (e.g., spouse, dependent, estate at your death) for other than reimbursement for qualified medical expenses, then any distribution, whether for qualified medical expenses or not, is included in gross income.